Saturday, March 21, 2020
Do You Suffer from Computer Stress Syndrome Youre Not Alone If I had to choose ONE thing that stresses me out me out more than anything else in my work life, it would be computer problems. It might not surprise you that IÃ¢â¬â¢m writing this blog because, on this very day, I am ready to tear my hair out due to multiple technical aggravators.There are thousands of articles and probably hundreds of books that talk about how to handle stress. But Ã¢â¬ ¦ do any of them talk specifically about how to handle the stress of heart-stopping technical issues? I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t find any in my admittedly basic-level internet search. I did however find a report entitled Combatting Computer Stress Syndrome that surveyed 1,000+ computer users, finding that two-thirds of them had experienced this phenomenon. Despite being self-proclaimed Ã¢â¬Å"savvyÃ¢â¬ users, people facing technical snafus had increased stress levels, in tandem with interrupted work or play time, loss of valuable data, dropped network or e-mail connections, and the inability to complete online purchases (that last one somehow did not garner my sympathies). My particular technical snafus today included the inability to access my QuickBooks file, some disappearing and/or inaccessible emails, and problems getting my MacMail to retrieve my business email. At the same time, I am deciding whether or not to begin implementing a CRM system Ã¢â¬â a project that sends me into overwhelm after just about 2 minutes of thinking about it. Even as I write, my heart is racing and my head pounding. If only there were a yoga class I could escape to at 8pm on a Sunday night! The article about Computer Stress Syndrome offered no solace, as it was focused on the quality of technical support Ã¢â¬â not on what to do when you are a business owner or other responsible professional facing time-sucking, aggravating and unexpected issues, or issues that you just have a hard time getting your mind around. Of course, decent tech support is essential to keeping stress levels from going through the roof. But needing to be on the phone with tech support at all is often the problem for me. I tend to postpone the inevitable for as long as possible. And what about business-related projects like the CRM that I need to deal with and that I respond to just like I would a technical problem? I would love to hire someone to take care of it for me, but it seems that no matter whom I enroll, I need to make decisions and figure things out so they know how to proceed. In many areas, I have no problem directing people and being involved in decision-making processes. But when it comes to technology I sink. The only thing I can figure out to lower my computer-induced stress levels is to take the time to solve the darned problem. In fact, I could not even complete the writing of this article until I spent an hour with AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s tech support team to make at least ONE of my technical issues go away. I think I have some limit, like I can handle it if there are 1-2 technical issues, but 3 or more and IÃ¢â¬â¢m toast. I have no further wisdom to share on this topic and am writing to ask for yours. Does anyone out there have a coping mechanism to deal with the insidious Computer Stress Syndrome? If so, please do share. You might change a lot of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives for the better. Ã°Å¸Ëâ° I feel your pain. We writers are in a tough situation. We depend upon technology for our livelihoods, but as creatives, we need to escape it to nourish our souls and minds to keep the creative juices flowing. How to strike that balance is tough. Youre on the right track with solving one issue at a time, enlisting help, and escaping when necessary. Thats why I got into belly dancing. Gets me away from the monitor and out of the house, like your yoga. We need that! Just dont go crazy with a baseball bat like in the movie Office Space. But, you can always call me up, if you need someone to vent to. Log in to Reply The Essay Expert says: March 18, 2014 at 2:05 pm Thank you Kristin! I feel so understood!! Log in to Reply Michelle Robin says: March 18, 2014 at 11:27 pm Besides echoing Kristens advice of dealing with one thing at a time, I know a fantastic Mac technical help guy that specializes in creative professionals. Doing regular maintenance on your computer helps prevent problems. Log in to Reply Terri says: September 17, 2015 at 6:34 pm As someone who has worked in software engineering and studies computer science, technical issues are inevitable no matter how tech savvy you are. I use Windows and Ive probably re-installed the Windows operating system at least 10 times. The good news is that most technical issues can be fixed eventually as long as you are vigilant about backing up your data. If you have a good backup system, you can always recover from technical issues. You can always re-install the software, re-install the operating system, buy new computer parts, etc. So my answer is make sure you have a strong backup system. As long as you still have your data, you can recover. As bad as technical issues can be, losing your data is much much worse. For some advice about backups, see https://www.taobackup.com/ Log in to Reply
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Fairness and Objectivity in Journalism You hear it all the time- reporters should be objective and fair. Some news organizations even use these terms in their slogans, claiming that they are more Ã¢â¬Å"fair and balancedÃ¢â¬ than their competitors. But what is objectivity? Objectivity Objectivity means that when covering hard news, reporters donÃ¢â¬â¢t convey their own feelings, biases or prejudices in their stories. They accomplish this by writing stories using language that is neutral and avoids characterizing people or institutions in ways good or bad. But for the beginning reporter accustomed to writing personal essays or journal entries, it can be hard to do this. One trap beginning reporters fall into is the frequent use of adjectives. Adjectives can easily convey oneÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings about a subject. Example The intrepid protesters demonstrated against the unjust government policies. Just by using the words Ã¢â¬Å"intrepidÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"unjustÃ¢â¬ the writer has quickly conveyed his feelings on the story- the protesters are brave and just in their cause, the government policies are wrong. For this reason, hard-news reporters usually avoid using adjectives in their stories. Fairness Fairness means that reporters covering a story must remember there are usually two sides- and often more- to most issues and that those differing viewpoints should be given roughly equal space in any news story. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s say the local school board is debating whether to ban certain books from the school libraries. Many residents representing both sides of the issue are there. The reporter may have strong feelings about the subject. Nevertheless, he should interview citizens who support the ban, and those who oppose it. And when he writes his story, he should convey both arguments in a neutral language, giving both sides roughly equal space. A ReporterÃ¢â¬â¢s Conduct Objectivity and fairness apply not only to how a reporter writes about an issue but to how he conducts himself in public. A reporter must not only be objective and fair but also convey an image of being objective and fair. At the school board forum, the reporter may do his best to interview people from both sides of the argument. But if in the middle of the meeting, he stands up and starts spouting his own opinions on the book ban then his credibility is shattered. No one will believe he can be fair and objective once they know where he stands. The moral of the story? Keep your opinions to yourself.Ã A Few Caveats There are a few caveats to remember when considering objectivity and fairness. First, such rules apply to reporters covering hard news, not to the columnist writing for the op-ed page, or the movie critic working for the arts section. Second, remember that ultimately, reporters are in search of the truth. While objectivity and fairness are important, a reporter shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t let them get in the way of finding the truth. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s say youÃ¢â¬â¢re a reporter covering the final days of World War II and are following the Allied forces as they liberate the concentration camps. You enter one such camp and witness hundreds of gaunt, emaciated people and piles of dead bodies. Do you, in an effort to be objective, interview an American soldier to talk about how horrific this is, then interview a Nazi official to get the other side of the story? Of course not. Clearly, this is a place where evil acts have been committed, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s your job as a reporter to convey that truth. In other words, use objectivity and fairness as tools to find the truth.
Monday, February 17, 2020
Euthyphro (Platos Early Dialogues) - Essay Example Does God call something right or moral because it is right or moral or does is something right or moral because God calls it moral? Therefore, if God calls an act moral because it is moral, then morality or goodness will be seen as priori to Gods Command and thus, it is independent of God. On the other hand, if an act is moral because God says it is moral or right, then it implies that whatever God says it is right (Hamilton and Cairns 37). In addition, this also implies that Gods command of what is moral is arbitrary since the same God could have willed contrary commands. The dialogue presents the challenge that was intended to make us think about the nature of morality. Therefore, when Socrates asks Euthyphro about his definition of the word piety, Euthyphro was required to identify the nature of virtue or morality by establishing on what ground does morality or virtue stand on. It is difficult for an atheist to discover the ground on which morality stands on because they claim tha t they can have ethics or morals without God. Certainly, an atheist can behave in a way that people perceive moral or good but it is really hard to define what the term ultimately means (Plato 10a). It may imply complying with objective standard of morality or good, a policy or law given by legitimate authority without involving a transcendent law maker-the gods. This means that there can be no transcendent law maker and no corresponding duty to be good. Most Christians oppose the argument that there is an arbitrary role of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s power and rejects the idea that there is no law or policy over God. Then, where does morality stands? Morality can be said to be grounded in the divine and immutable character of God who is perfectly good in that his commands are not whims but planted in his holiness. Christians argue that any bad things that happen are not commanded by God because his character is that he is holy and merciful. For Christians, morality is rooted in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s chara cter which expresses itself in the commands of God and it is not above him. In sum, whatever is good is always commanded by God not that it is good so that God commands it to be good (Cooper 41). Christians argue that God ultimately determines the pious or morality and that the commands of God are expression of his desires and will for what human beings ought to do. This is because such argument presents a metaphysical foundation of piety or morality. Human beings need to be committed to the existence of moral truths in order for them to live in accordance with the will of God. This means the existence of moral truths for people since they have moral obligation to obey what God commands. This is so because Christians believe that their moral obligation comes from God in form of commands. Thus, people ought to be moral because they are morally accountable to God in that those people who do not obey him will be punished and good people will receive rewards (Plato 10b). PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogue regarding the nature of morality or goodness is still being raised even today as a challenge to Christianity in that many Christians ask themselves is an action or act good or right because God says it is right or does god say it is good or right because the act is right. The Euthyphro dilemma is traced in
Monday, February 3, 2020
Drug and GPA - Assignment Example Introduction The study on the effect of drug on individual GPA is very useful and critical. This is owing to the fact that, in developed countries, one among four young people between the age of 12 and 20 are involved in drug abuse and excessive alcohol consumption. Several studies in United States learning institutions have also confirmed that drug abuse at young age significantly affects studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic performance. Drug abuse also results in increased conflict in schools and school dropouts. The threatening impacts of drugs and alcohol abuse on students GPA have therefore raised the need for intensive research to understand the manner in which drugs affect Grade Point Average at all academic levels (Hommer, 2003). The study will also be critical in helping the policy makers in coming up with an effective intervention measures to address the problem. Research question Does drug effect studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ GPA? Literature review Williams, Powell &Wechsler, (2003, undertook int ensive researches to understand the impact of drugs on GPA. Howver, among there researches, there is no study that has presented a convincing answer. The available research findings in the journal have however confirmed that drug abuse has a critical students GPA. Drusg also dertemines whether a student will remain in school or will terminate their education for other social purposes. Most of their studies that were conducted in the United States of America in 2003 and they linked drug abuse to various social challenges in higher learning institutions including school drop outs, hangovers, alcohol poisoning, Neuro-cognitive defects, and brain dysfunction (Williams, Powell &Wechsler, 2003).. ... Based on this research finding, it is also clear and accurate to observe that male GPA are largely affected by drug consumption more than their female counterparts. On their part, Zimmerman, Caldwell & Bernat, (2006), obrserved that male students who engage in excessive consumptions of alcohol and drugs have a poor GPA compared to female who are involved in the same social vice. Their study further indicated that the rate of drug abuse both in high schools and in other higher learning institutions is increasing at an alarming rate. Therefore, by considering the impact of drugs on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance, (Zimmerman, Caldwell & Bernat, 2006) recognised the importance of intensive research to intensively understand the manner in which drugs affects male and female students Grade Point Average (GPA) at all academic levels. The understanding of impact of drug abuse on male and female student GPA is also vital as it will help in searching for the most appropriate intervention measure s to address the vice (Zimmerman, Caldwell & Bernat, 2006) Method The study used random method to identify the sample. Data was obtained from a sample from CSUN students in June, 2009 (N=541). This sample composed of 35.6% males and 64.4% females. Respondents age was between 18-54 with mean age: 25.4 (s=5.619). The sample was also from different ethical background, 20.6% Asian-Pacific Islander, 25.6% Latino/Hispanic 8.1, 39.1% Caucasian, African American, and 5.6% other. The available information also indicates that among the 36,208 students registered at CSUN43% are men and 57% are women. Ethnically, the population is composed of Asian-Pacific
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Religious Depictions in Art The Human Experience The Vladimir Madonna The Vladimir Madonna is a Russian icon painted during the 12th century. It is recognized by the arm of a child around the neck of the mother. It is designed in that the face the mother is facing the audience. The face out-shows human warmth and comprehension, as well as deep concern and sadness (Cooper, Dana, and Claire, 150). The Mosaic Dome of the Great Mosque of Cordoba It is the most important building and monument in the Muslim religion. It is beautifully decorated with no seat or altars inside and is used as a place of worship (Darke, 90). The monument symbolizes religious changes Cordoba has undergone over the centuries. It also reveals Islamic art and architecture of the 8th century (Darke, 91). Giotto Lamentation (Burial of Jesus) The work reveals the mourning of Christ. The monument consists of the painting of the body of Christ being held by three women that wear halos and biblical costumes (Lubbock, 248). The painting of the face depicts extreme sadness and lays the foundation of the Renaissance. Giotto is the artist and is commonly referred as the father of western painting (Lubbock, 248). Duccio di Buoninsegna: Maesta (Virgin Mary Enthroned) Duccio is one of the most influential artists in Italy. In his Maesta, the Virgin is painted sited on a marvelous inlaid throne. The face is painted to reveal a hint of a smile (Keith, 40). Durham Cathedral (England) It is one of the monuments founded in 1093. The building still remains centre of worship to date. The walls are whitewashed while the shrines of Cuthbert are substantially destroyed. The exterior displays are the stained broken glass windows (ChÃ¢â¬â¢ing, Mark, and Prakash, 370). Grunewald Ã¢â¬ËCrucifixionÃ¢â¬â¢ from the Isenheim Altarpiece The Crucifixion altarpiece is an impressive art by Matthias which depicts the crucifixion of Christ (Gardner, Helen, and Kleiner, 504). The monument was constructed and painted in early 1500s, essentially containing a box of statues covered by folding wings. The art generally consists painting of Christ with the witnesses of the crucifixion scene and as revealed in the biblical teachings (Gardner, Helen, and Kleiner, 504). Raphael: The Ã¢â¬Å"Alba MadonnaÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"School of AthensÃ¢â¬ Alba Madonna and the School of Athens depict the works of Raphael in 1500s. in his school of Athens, Raphael is celebrated for his paintings ranging from the depiction of Plato to Aristotle other sages that reveal human sentiments. El Greco: Ã¢â¬Å"The Burial of Count OrgazÃ¢â¬ The burial is one of El GrecoÃ¢â¬â¢s panting and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. The art was created in 1588 and is considered his greatest masterpiece of all time (Scholz-Hansel, Michael, and Greco, 51). The burial contains heaven painting above and a moral burial scene below. BerniniÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"DavidÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"DavidÃ¢â¬ is a marble sculpture created in 1623 depicting BerniniÃ¢â¬â¢s architecture. The painting consist the sculpture of David of the bible in a position suggesting his confrontation with the giant Goliath (Janson, and Anthony, 5). Ã¢â¬ËValuesÃ¢â¬â¢ The Vladimir Madonna The Vladimir Madonna reveals part of the life of the Russian history, accounting for the religious beliefs of that time. The icon was founded in 1395 and has remained since then (Cooper, Dana, and Claire, 150). The icon account for the miraculous interventions ascertained to it which makes the Russian people attached to it. The icon symbolizes the RussianÃ¢â¬â¢s acknowledgment of the Vladimir Virgin favors as contained in the scriptures. For instance, it symbolizes how Moscow was saved thrice from the Tartars on august of 1395 (Cooper, Dana, and Claire, 152). The Russian believe that the icon roused blazing enthusiasm in her defense during the attacks by the poles. The icon was later restored with the participation of religious leaders. It was then celebrated thrice a year in 1500s where the Russian held feasts in honor of the icon. It was considered a sacred treasure for them as it defended them against the Poles attacks of the Muscovites (Cooper, Dana, and Claire, 154). The Vladimir icons exist in two groups. First is the Odigitria also known as Ã¢â¬Å"The GuideÃ¢â¬ . In this group, the Virgin is painted holding the child Jesus on her left arm while pointing to him with the right hand. The manner in which the icon is placed is interpreted to mean that the Virgin is guiding people, or rather communicating to the Russian that the child (Jesus) is Ã¢â¬Ëthe chosen oneÃ¢â¬â¢. The second group is the Ã¢â¬Å"tender heartedÃ¢â¬ . In this group, the Virgin holds the child (Jesus) with her right arm in manner as if cuddling Ã¢â¬ËHimÃ¢â¬â¢ in a gentle way filled with maternal tenderness. Through the two groups, the icon depicts the attitude of the iconographer which symbolizes the religious perception at the time. Personal opinion The icon depicts the Russian art and architecture during the 12th century. It also depicts the Russian religious beliefs at the time. This explains why the icon has been preserved up to date. More importantly, the icon helps us understand the human behavior in regard, as well as in connection with religious faith. The monument also reveals the great works and creativity of the artists of that time. The monument is an illustration of the continued revolution of human life, both socially and economically, as well politically. The transformation to the current world of civilization is also depicted. Through the icon, the Russian history is well revealed and described. For instance, Russian experienced three exceptional iconographers who cooperated in their painting talents to come up with a strong architecture. Through the Vladimir Virgin, we learn more of the Biblical teaching and Christian faith, especially the Catholic faith. For instance, the prolonged gave of the Virgin to the baby Jesus reveals the deep concern of a mother-child love. The divine reveals the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s concern for her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s future. The Virgin is aware of what awaits her Son, as it is revealed through the scriptures, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦and a sword will pierce your own soulÃ¢â¬ as contained in Luke 2-35. In ancient times, the Jerusalem school of icon painters prevailed against Greek and other influences. For instance, the Virgin is depicted as a conservative Palestinian girl with her head covered in accordance with the culture. As written in the scriptures, the clarity of Virgin Mary is crystalline. In the same manner, the veil of the icon is painted white to pass the same message. In that regard, there is a connection between the early architecture and the religious, as well as the culture of the people at tha t time. Likewise, the same values are passed from one generation to the other. Giotto Lamentation (Burial of Jesus) Giotto lamentation is similar to Vladimir Madonna. The monument consists of the painting of the body of Christ being held by three women that wear halos and biblical costumes (Lubbock, 248). The painting of the face depicts extreme sadness and lays the foundation of the Renaissance. Giotto is the artist and is commonly referred as the father of western painting. He creatively used Byzantine techniques to create an emotional biblical story that combines traditional Byzantine elements of painting (Lubbock, 248). For instance, Giotto uses the dimensional layout and iconography in his painting to bring about emotion revelation of the death of Christ. The manner in which he displays his painting invites the viewers to witness the pain the Christ experienced during the lamentation. The paintings are displayed in that one can almost hear the sobs of the women around the body (Lubbock, 249). In the same manner, one can feel the shrieks from the angels above at a close look of the painting of the angles. GiottoÃ¢â¬â¢s lamentation depicts a realistic turn of events, turning the paintings into real human beings with real emotions. The painting consists of the body of Christ, some women and men, and angles (Lubbock, 250). They all surrounding the body of Christ and preventing it from touching the ground. At JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ feet is a woman whom we believe is Mary Magdalene from the biblical teaching. We are able to recognize her from her long red hair. The entire painting reveals the burial of the Christ as explained in the scriptures. The painting is about 7.5 feet square and relies entirely on the Bible, including the meditation on the life of Christ as described in the monk of the 13th century (Lubbock, 250). Personal opinion GiottoÃ¢â¬â¢s painting was done between the 12th and the 13th centuries when Christianity was widely spreading across the Roman Empire. It was during the reign of Emperor Constantine and Christianity emerged the most powerful institution in Western Europe. With the spread of the Christianity came the foundation of the Renaissance. The Renaissance was kinder like the birth of the ancient Greek and Roman culture. This came during the time economic prosperity in Europe and this gave birth to art which mainly concentrated on the human culture. Giotto mainly opened the way into a new style early painting by creating a world that is symbolic. His understanding of human form is well expressed through his painting skills as an artist. He clearly separates the human forms from the saintly counterparts. Heaven and earth are well demonstrated as well as joined together through the body of Christ. GiottoÃ¢â¬â¢s architecture mainly focuses on the birth and the spread of Christianity from one generation to the other. His work has proved to be one of the most influential architecture in Europe. Lamentation depicts the process of the burial of the Christ. In other word, the painting is self explanatory of what is written in the scripture. It enables readers understand the roman cultures, especially the Roman Catholic faith. It serves also as a quicker revelation of the roman culture relation the events that took place during the burial of Christ with the current faith of the Christians. With the painting, Christians can easily and effectively relate with the reality that the followers of Christ faced by then. The paintings are emotional to carry out the message effectively. Durham Cathedral (England) It is one of the monuments founded in 1093 (Gardner, Helen, and. Kleiner, 181). The building still remains centre of worship to date. It was the first cathedral in Europe and is made of stone rib vaulting, with the earliest pointed transverse arches in England. The main entry is through the north door. The door contain a sanctuary knocker made of bronze and is specifically used during medieval times by those seeking sanctuary. The Durham CathedralÃ¢â¬â¢s nave is surrounded by attractive massive curved pillars, 6.6 meters high and round (Gardner, Helen, and. Kleiner, 181). The pillars have stood for more than 900 years. The building contains a long narrow slab of frosterly stone where women remained as they were not allowed to enter the building. The walls are whitewashed while the shrines of Cuthbert are substantially destroyed. The exterior displays are the stained broken glass windows (Gardner, Helen, and. Kleiner, 182). On the west end is the Galilee chapel, very large and beautifully decorated, and was built in 1170 (Ching, Mark, and Vikramaditya, 370). The chapel contains a tomb and monk built in the 8th century. The northern side walls contain painting of the 12th century (ChÃ¢â¬â¢ing, Mark, and Vikramaditya, 370). Additionally, the quire contains finely curved wood stalls along which the daily services take place. The chapels also contain the bishopÃ¢â¬â¢s throne where the bishop used to seat. Separated from St. CuthbertÃ¢â¬â¢s shrine is the high altar which is the focal point of the chapel. There is a CastellÃ¢â¬â¢s clock situated in the south transept which is believed to have been provided by Thomas Castell in 1494 (ChÃ¢â¬â¢ing, Mark, and Vikramaditya, 370). The entire monument is well maintained in its original form is acts like a museum for tourists. Personal Opinion Durham Cathedral is one of the biggest Cathedrals and was kept to symbolize the origin of the Christian Catholic faith. The building has been kept in its original form apart from few changes which include paintings on the walls but its interior and exterior outlays have been maintained. The chapel is used as the center of worship and mainly acts as a sign of unity among the believers. The chapel takes after the main chapel of all time; the old St. PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s situated in Rome. Just like the Old St. PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s square in Rome, Durham Cathedral plays a major role in England. Durham Cathedral depicts the origin of the Catholic faith which signifies the cultural beliefs of its followers. It also signifies the traditional roman architecture of all time. The chapel can be used to study human behavior and perceptions towards a particular subjected. For instance, most Christians belief in life after death, and that Christ died on the cross for our sins. This might be different from Islamic religion. Additionally, Christians can use the chapel to trace their root of their faith, as well as trace or find answers about a particular issue. Nonetheless, the chapel can as well be used as a museum, especially for artist who want to learn and explore their skills in the field art. Work Cited Ching, Francis D. K, Mark Jarzombek, and Vikramaditya Prakash. A Global History of Architecture. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley, 2011. Internet resource. (pg, 370) Christiansen, Keith. Duccio and the Origins of Western Painting. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2008. Print. (Pg 40) Cooper, Dana, and Claire Phelan. Motherhood and War: International Perspectives. , 2014. Print. (Pg150) Darke, Diana. Syria. Chalfont St. Peter: Bradt Travel Guides, 2010. Print. 90 Gardner, Helen, and Fred S. Kleiner. Gardners Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective. Boston, Mass.: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2010. Print. (Pg 255). Gardner, Helen, and Fred S. Kleiner. Gardners Art Through the Ages: A Concise Global History. Australia: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2009. Print. 181-182 Gardner, Helen, and Fred S. Kleiner. Gardners Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective. Boston, Mass.: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2010. Print. (Pg 504) Janson, H W, and Anthony F. Janson. History of Art. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice-Hall, 2004. Print. Lubbock, Jules. Storytelling in Christian Art from Giotto to Donatello. New Haven [u.a.: Yale University Press, 2006. Print. (Pg,248) Scholz-Hansel, Michael, and Greco. El Greco: Domenikos Theotokopoulos, 1541-1614. Hong Kong, China: Taschen, 2006. Print. (Pg, 51)
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Utilizing QR Code Technology In Encoding Patient Summary List 2012 Utilizing QR Code Technology In Encoding Patient Summary List Fatima Alsaleh and Samir Elmasri PhD College of Computer and Information Systems, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia Abstract: In situations like emergency, where the immediately gained, summarized and accurate information may radically make the difference between life and death, the need for a solution that fulfills this requirement arises. Number of solutions was previously proposed including emergency card and smart cards, but each has number of cons and pros.With the rapid adoption of smartphones, QR codes (Quick Response) is the ideal substitute for the current circumstances. It can be easily read by the paramedics, whether they are medical professionals or bystanders and provide immediate, accurate, reliable information that radically impact an individual's life, in case of emergency. This paper discusses the advantageous utilization of the QR code an d smartphone revolutionary technology in the medical field. It also discusses other uses of QR code, in some related fields where it can be beneficial the most.Page | 1 Utilizing QR Code Technology In Encoding Patient Summary List 2012 Introduction Accidents happen all the time all around the world. A continuous work by the governments and non-profit associations has been accomplished to propose and impose policies and procedures that best decrease the number of accidents and control their tragic consequences. On the other hand, an increasing number of researches and tested methodologies have been conducted in the past few years, specifically in the field of emergency, to best control the damages.The main focus was to summaries the most important and critical medical information about an individual in an in a portable means and ensure a quick retrieval of these data in a secure manner. The earliest attempt to compliance with the quick, secure and summarized access to an individual's critical medical information was by using emergency cards. Some Health providers companies provide their patients with an emergency card that has some information extracted from the patient summary List. This card has saved lives as it's the guide that could help the first aiders or emergency staff to act accurately in a timely manner.The means, however, evolved over years to cope with the technology revolution and benefit the most of it. Encoding the patients EMR in smart card is a methodology that has been rapidly followed by many EMR companies and healthcare providers. A part of the medical record of any patient is a summary known as a Patient Summary List or Problem Summary List. This paper proposes a method that could benefit from the two aforementioned important concepts. The method introduces the use of the Quick Response (QR) technology in the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s Emergency card.Related Work Some health providers provide their patients with an Emergency Card that usually has th e vital medical information that could make the difference between life and death, usually known as Patient summary list (part of the Electronic Medical Record). The list should include the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s ID, medical history of Arthritis, Hypertension, Cancer, Diabetes, Heart Disease, etc. any operative and invasive procedure, any adverse and allergic drug reaction, present medications . The natural medium to record the patient's medical information is the papers.Even though papers have advantages of being low in cost, available and portable, problems raised due to the decentralized nature of the paper-based medical records, difficulties Page | 2 Utilizing QR Code Technology In Encoding Patient Summary List 2012 in data storage and retrieval, threat of being damaged or lost, etc. Consequently, the concept of Electronic Medical Record has been introduced to overcome these issues. Examples of early electronic systems include Computer-stored Ambulatory Record (COSTAR), Health E valuation through Logical Processing (HELP), and Multiphase Health Testing System (MHTS) .Smart Card is the perfect media that can be used as a health card due to its small size, secure, capability of digitizing a huge amount of personal and medical data . Some attempts have been done by researchers to develop a personal portable healthcare record smart cards and a corresponding framework to simplify maintenance and transfer of patient records . Researchers in the U. K. have created MyCare, a smart card with a fold-out USB plug that can hold a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s medical history. MyCare was developed with open source that enables it to run on different computers and operating systems.Data is protected through PINs and encryption, with a higher level of encryption planned for further stages in the development process . These smart card projects work better in countries with nationalized health care. In the US For example, competition among hospitals is a barrier to a smar t card system . Smart card technology was not widely spread due to lack of standards (Dash, 2001); the communications between a smart card and smart card reader. The cards also need to be updated constantly which would be hard to enforce .For smart cards, user mobility is only possible if every machine that the user access has a smart card reader attached. The machine must support the same standard smart card reader interfaces or use the same proprietary smart card reader . Research Statement Due to the barriers of smart cards usage including, the high cost value, the unnecessary imposed security and the need for a special card reader, the smart emergency card solution may not be the best solution. The proposed method is the use of Quick Response (QR) codes to hold the patient's critical medical information.The solution overcomes the expense, unavailability and communication issues of the smart card, by the fact that QR is inexpensive technology that doesn't need a specia l reader, it needs software that could be installed freely on any smart phone. This ensures the quick yet accurate and responsive aid provided to unresponsive individual in case of emergency. The solution should also be used as a reporting tool. It can be embedded into a smart phone application developed to be used for reporting accidents. This may overcome the issues of Page | 3Utilizing QR Code Technology In Encoding Patient Summary List 2012 reporting accidents by using the QR technology as an accurate, unique and prompt reporting tool. Background Quick Response (QR) codes are type of two dimensional barcodes. It's a technique that was first invented by Denso-Wave, a subsidiary of Toyota Group that was firstly designed to track the vehicles' parts manufacturing process, and since then it has grown rapidly. In Recent years it has been utilized to work as a marketing tool to advertise for products, sites, brands, etc.Fig1: QR codes structure  QR Code can store up to 7089 numeri c characters, 4296 alphanumeric characters or 2953 bytes (8-bit binary). They are capable of storing different types of data: text, vCards, pictures, URLs, Videos, etc. The stored data is extracted in a readable form through QR readers that are usually smartphone software, or dedicate QR reading devices. Number of QR code scanner applications is available for Apple, BlackBerry and Android smartphones, mostly for free. Once installed, it uses the phone's embedded camera to scan the code and decode it instantly. Page | 4Utilizing QR Code Technology In Encoding Patient Summary List 2012 Proposed Solution The idea behind this paper is very easy to grasp. The aim is to have a mechanism that provide the first aiders to know what needed to be known, at the right time, with the easiest possible means. For unresponsive person, or in case if an individual was unable to speak and give vital information, it is important to have some sort of easy to get yet authenticated and accurate medical sum mary that can be available at anytime, anywhere. In some cases, it makes the difference between life and death.Patient Summary List The more we know the better we act and response. In medicine, to know the patient's historical and current medical condition is as much important as the action to be taken on the case. Delaying a treatment or prescribing a wrong medication or one that conflicts with the patient's medical condition could be dangerous and might end up deadly. From this point, the importance of the Patient Summary List arises. The Patient Summary List is a summarized accessible list of the patient's significant medical information.The summary should contain as much information as possible to assist medics and other first responders in case of emergency. The information may include the following categories, though, some entries might be optional. Each entry has to be timestamped: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Patient's information: age, sex, marital status, weight, height and blood type. Hospital-related information: name, ID, address, phone number, medical record, hospital's name. Emergency contacts. Allergies/Adverse Allergic Drug Reactions.Significant medical diagnoses and conditions: Cancer, Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, Angina, Pacemaker, Stroke, Circulation Problem, Arthritis, infectious disease (TB/Hepatitis/MRSA), Osteoporosis / osteopenia, Lung problems, Seizures, Polio / post-polio, Urinary incontinence, Depression, HIV positive, Pregnancy condition, Wearing Contact Lenses, Smoker or not. 6. Significant surgical/invasive procedures. Page | 5 Utilizing QR Code Technology In Encoding Patient Summary List 2012 7. 8. Medication/Vitamins/Supplements names, doses, frequency and rout for each.Education: Language spoken, Barriers to learning (blind/deaf/etc) . Medical Records are created by the medical institutes for every individual assessed or treated. Consequently, the Patient's Summary List should be derived from the patient's Medical Recor d. The Summary List must be prepared by the Hospital of which the patient is having his treatment to ensure the legibility, completeness and authentication . It's also important to have the list updated whenever there is a change in medication, diagnose or allergies and also whenever a procedure is performed.Why QR Codes? Some medical institutes tend to provide their patients with a Summary List printed on a paper (or card) or coded in a smart card. Both ways have number of cons and pros. The usage of printed Summary List in a paper is condition of damage. Especially ICE (In Case of Emergency), it can easily burn, get wet or shredded into pieces and loss it's value. The use of cards might be a safer choice, but it's impossible to have it small enough to fit in someone's wallet and yet have it containing all needed information about the person's medical condition.The use of smart cards on the other hand, might be the best solution comparing with the other available means since th ey are safer, have a larger capacity, easily to carry along and can be kept up t date without the need to issue new ones. However, they need special readers to read them that are usually unavailable for the first aiders ICE. Besides, smart cards are costly to issue and maintain. QR code's quickness, availability, widely spread and low cost might lead it to be a very good choice to encode the Patient's Summary List.It overcomes the issues encountered in other means, and they can be utilized to serve other purposes that will be discussed later in this paper. With the advantages of the QR codes usage has been examined and assessed, we are ready to discuss the proposed procedure and a suggested standard: ? The list should be captured and stored in a standard encoding system to support data sharing, analysis and provide a more practical and accurate way Page | 6 Utilizing QR Code Technology In Encoding Patient Summary List 2012 o retrieve the required information. The standard of the Sum mary List has to be proposed and admitted by the Ministry of Health. ? Administration and maintenance of the Summary List is important. Healthcare providers are responsible of issuing a Summary List of each patient's EMR. They are also responsible for encoding it in a QR code. ? ? The issued QR codes should be printed on wallet-sized cards and submitted to patients. The QR card should be on the medical card (printed right on the back of the card on printed on a sticker on the same card).The medical card (with QR code at back of it) has to be kept right next to the driving license in someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s wallet. This is critical to have the first responders make use of this method. ? The Summary List has to be updated by the issuer upon any significant change in the patient's medications or health condition. Further, if the patient was examined by a hospital other that the one issuing the code, it's the responsibility of the patient to update the QR code with the new medical information according to the hospital's report. People have to be educated by spreading the QR concept and the role it's playing in rescuing individuals ICE. The paramedics (emergency staff) on the other hand have to have the dedicated QR code readers or having the scanning software installed on their smartphones. Having these standards stated out, the QR code usage can be efficiently utilized and beneficial. If individuals were educated and aware about saving someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life using the proposed method, the number of errors that might be encountered will decrease rapidly.In contrary with the other possible means, QR codes do not require a special reader or password authentication or a computer to be read, which make them accessible whenever needed. In addition, bar codes are proven technology that can be used in health care, where little room for error exists. Page | 7 Utilizing QR Code Technology In Encoding Patient Summary List 2012 Possible Scenario The following scenario is summarized in Fig 4 below, a possible QR utilization scenario: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. An accident happens to an individual carrying a QR code card.The first responder (emergency professional or bystander) check the infected person's wallet and find the QR code. The code is scanned by the rescuer's Smartphone's QR reader. The summary list with all significant medical information is displayed. The rescuer provides the first aids according to the infected person's medical status, whether he/she has a Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, etc, and call the emergency. 6. The emergency professionals should take the proper, most accurate action based on the extracted medical status. This can make the difference between life and death.Other actions can also be taken by the rescuer like for example sending the QR code through a Smartphone's software (detailed in Other Medical-Related QR Uses section below). Fig2: QR code workflow in case of emergency Page | 8 Utilizing QR Code Technology In Encoding Pa tient Summary List 2012 QR Coded Patient Summary List Update As stated above, the providers should update the patient's summary list whenever there is a change in diagnosis, medications, or allergies to medications and whenever a procedure is performed. The Patient Summary List is derived from the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s Electronic Medical/Health Record .The summary list contains specific attributes extracted from the medical record. Having these attributes labeled in the electronic medical record will ease the process of extracting and updating the Patient Summary List attributeÃ¢â¬â¢s values. So, the system should trigger an update on the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s list whenever a change in the labeled attributes. Fig3: QR code workflow in case of emergency  How to Update QR Codes? There are two main types of QR codes; static and dynamic. Static QR codes contents are static, cannot be edited or updated, whereas the dynamic QR codeÃ¢â¬â¢s content can be easily updated.Also, unlike the s tatic QR codes, it does not require generating new QR code. The exact printed QR can be used that leads to the updated contents. When the QR codes are used to encode the Patient Summary List, a frequent content update will be needed. Accordingly three main QR forms are proposed: Page | 9 Utilizing QR Code Technology In Encoding Patient Summary List 2012 1. Using a static QR codes with a static summary list that needs to be re-printer upon each record change. In this case, the provider may print the codes on stickers and remove the old ones once the new ones are issued.This might be more cost effective than re-printing the patient card with the new QR code on the back. 2. Instead of having QR codes printed out, a soft copy of the QR code can be generated and loaded into an individual's mobile. This is also effective in cost-wise, but it might be not so practical in case of an emergency. The rescuer may not be able to locate the QR code image in the mobile of an unconscious person, or the mobile is locked with a pin or itÃ¢â¬â¢s out of battery, etc. Though it is easy to maintain and saves the cost of reprinting the code upon a record change. . Using the dynamic QR codes that have a dynamic content with an editable, editable content using the same printed code. Further, some QR code generator companies (like SQUARE) provide a track service and statics of how many devices scanned the code, where, scanner device type, etc. Having this concept applied on the medical health field considered very practical. In view thereof, dynamic QR codes are the best utilization due its cost saving, efficiency and easy to maintain. However, since this kind of codes requires a wireless connection, it might be limited.Though, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not a huge barrier in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s networked world. Fig4: QR Update trigger scenario. Page | 10 Utilizing QR Code Technology In Encoding Patient Summary List 2012 Updating QR code procedure Each step in the above scenario figure (Fig 4) is descri bed as follows: A patient visits the hospital (1), and a change in one of the stated record attributes (2) (change in diagnosis, medications, or allergies to medications and whenever a procedure is performed. ) has been encountered. So the updated patient record should trigger a generation of an updated summary list (3).Accordingly, new updated QR code/QR content has to be issued (4), and a notification sent to the patient with this update. ? ? If the static QR code form is adapted by the hospital, then the notification should instruct the patient to pick up the updated QR code card/sticker (4. 1). If the soft copied QR code form is adapted, then the notification should instruct the patient to download the latest QR code (either from the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s site after the patient login or sent for the patient email) (4. 2). ? If the dynamic QR code form is adapted, then the codes destination contents updated upon the new summary list update (4. ). Other Medical-Related QR Uses Aside o f utilizing the QR codes as an emergency guide for paramedics that provide a reliable, easy to use, quick access to an individual's Medical Summary List, QR codes can be used in other fields as well, as detailed in this section. The QR codes can be used as a reporting tool. By having an Emergency reporting channel other that the unified number, a software application installed on the smartphones, QR can be used as follows: ? ? Using the smartphone's camera, the QR code of the affected person is scanned through the Emergency software application.The software should display the encoded information, and a reporting option should also be available (say, a button). Page | 11 Utilizing QR Code Technology In Encoding Patient Summary List 2012 ? ? ? Upon pressing the button, the software should send the patient information to the emergency department along with the reporting location coordinates. The reporter information may also send (the reporter phone number can be easily gained from the user's phone). To capitalize the benefits, the reporting tool can play a complementary role of a clouded EMR system that is made available for the centralized Emergency unit.If this the case then a link to the QR holder's EMR could be also implicitly embedded and can be easily gain access to be the authorized Emergency staff. Having such system will not only provide a fast, accurate and reliable accident reporting tool, but it'll also help in reducing the redundancy encountered when reporting accidents and emergencies. Another usage of the QR code can be as portable, summarized EHR. Keeping a personal health record encoded in a QR with you when visiting a doctor that is not necessarily a staff member of the hospital where your Medical Record is kept is very helpful.It'll provide the doctor a sufficient answer when the he asks Ã¢â¬Å"what medications are you taking? Ã¢â¬ It'll save time, effort and the cost of running lab tests and radio-imaging for checking the accurate medical condition since they are encoded in the QR code, summarized, reliable and up to date. Another use could be on some other direction, by the police department. When someone is kept under custody, it would be helpful to avoid unexpected situations can be experienced with the kept person such as infectious diseases, heart diseases, high blood pressure, etc.Knowing such medical information is as much needful as keeping the person in prison, since it help in saving the lives inside the prison (life of the prisoners) and out (keeping the offender in custody). Conclusion We may not be able to stop the accidents from happening, but we are able and responsible to cut the losses and control their tragic consequences as much as we can. The practical knowledge of the medical workers coupled with the knowledge and expertise of the technology experts and developers can result technology-utilized solutions to everyday.In this Page | 12 Utilizing QR Code Technology In Encoding Patient Summary List 2 012 respect, solutions were proposed, researches were conducted and regulations were imposed, every day to best achieve this goal. This paper proposes a practical, non-cost affective, timely solution that can best utilize the widely spread technology Ã¢â¬Å"QRÃ¢â¬ to help saving lives. This solution can be utilized even more to be a complementary tool for the currently function, or proposed, emergency systems. References  http://westhoustonmedctr. ehc. com/CPM/Patient%20Summary%20List. df [accessed: 9 March 2012]  http://www. urology-partners. com/Forms/MEDICAL_HISTORY. pdf [accessed: 9 March 2012]  Lowe, H. J, Ã¢â¬Å"The Electronic Medical RecordÃ¢â¬ , (2003), Stanford University School of Medicine  http://www. smartcardsource. com/health. html [accessed: 11 March 2012] http://www. secureidnews. com/2011/06/15/smart-cards-show-potential-for-medicalrecords [accessed: 12 March 2012] http://www. smartplanet. com/blog/rethinking-healthcare/mycare-your-entire-medi calhistory-on-a-smart-card/5207 [accessed: 12 March 2012]  http://www. martcardalliance. org/pages/publications-smart-card-technology-in-healthcare [accessed: 15 March 2012]  Smart cardsÃ¢â¬âthe key to trustworthy health information systems BMJ 1997; 314 doi: 10. 1136/bmj. 314. 7080. 573(Published 22 February 1997)  Changrui Xiao and Arthur Yu: Medical Smart Card System for Patient Record Management. 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Friday, January 10, 2020
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